Math Toys

Reuleaux Rotor

This toy is availble from Amazon Japan and will ship to the US:

From Amazon.jp: BUY NOW: Reuleaux Rotor Wodden Toy

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Reuleaux Rotor: this famous curve of constant width, the Reuleaux triangle, can rotate such that at all times it remains in contact with all four sides of a square. As demonstrated by this wooden toy from Japan, the rotor covers approximately 98.77% of the area of the square, missing only the sharp corners. The curves in the corners are in the shape of an elliptical arc. Fun fact: a Reuleaux triangle has a perimeter equal to pi times its width- just like a circle! 

The Holoscope: Cube with Spheres

Order a holoscope from the artist's gallery here: 
The artwork of Gary Allison: BUY NOW Holoscopeworld.com 

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The Holoscope: a cube of mirrors with the interior viewed from one corner and illuminated by light entering from glass spheres at the other seven vertices. A type of kaleidoscope based on truncated Platonic solids by artist Gary Allison. Each holoscope has stained glass on the exterior and front surface mirrors on the inside which create the amazing and seemingly impossible spaces within. 

Oloids: Solid and Anit-oloid

Order your Anti-Oliod today: available in three types of metal:

From The Matter Collection: ORDER NOW: Anti-Oloids in Brass, Copper, and Steel 

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Oloids: “solid hull” and “ruled surface” types made from brass and copper- oloids are unique solids that roll in such a way that every point on their surface comes in contact with the plane. The basis of the oliod’s geometry is that of two connected circles, one perpendicular to the other such that the rim of each circle goes through the center of the other. The shapes you see here are the results of connecting the rims of these circles together with a family of straight lines, one method leads to the solid convex hull form, and another way leads to the ruled oloid (anti-oloid). 


Kinetic Traced Hyperboloid

This hard to find sculpture is currently unavailable, but here is a fun DIY kit version

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Kinetic Traced Hyperboloid: a straight rod glides through a symmetric pair of curved holes in this kinetic sculpture based on the hyperboloid, the 3D ruled surface traced by an offset revolved straight line. This version is made of anodized aluminum and rotates via gearing and a motor powered by two AA batteries in the base. 

Tessellation Origami

See more of Ekaterina's amazing work on her website gallery: Kusudama me!

Contact her to buy her artwork, or you can buy her books and learn how to fold amazing geometries!

From Amazon: BUY NOW: Ekaterina Lukasheva: Papercraft and Origami

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Tessellation Origami: nested spirals and triangles created from one flat sheet of paper! This beautiful work by Ekaterina Lukasheva also demonstrates how folded paper can obtain very different physical properties than that of the original flat paper. When stretched out this paper sculpture prefers to snap back into spirals and triangles, and although most materials bulge out when compressed along one direction, here the design compresses evenly along all three axis of the hexagonal symmetry. Title: Electricity-A Variaton of Spaced unit Opus_T-142.

Steinmetz Bicylinder

3D printed versions available here along with many other amazing geometrical objects:

From Etsy: BUY NOW: Steinmetz Bicylinder

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Steinmetz Bicylinder: intersect two cylinders at right angles and the remaining confined space is the bicylinder- shown here machined from stainless steel. The bicylinder casts a circular shadow along two orientations, and a square shadow perpendicular to those. In addition the curve created along where the two cylinders meet is an ellipse- as seen with the object spinning along the intersection axis. Fun fact: the area and volume of this object are known to be A=16r^2 and V=16r^3/3. Thanks to Zac Eichelberger of Math Meets Machine for sending me one of his creations. 

 

 


Dudeney's Dissection 3D Print

Get this set here!

From Etsy: BUY NOW: Dudeney's Dissection 3D Print

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Dudeney's Dissection: an equilateral triangle canbe cut (dissected) into four pieces that will then assemble into a square. This 3D printed version comes as a puzzle- fit the pieces in each of two containers- a square and a triangle, which also makes it clear the two supplied shapes are of equal area. Fun fact: It is not known if a similar three piece dissection is possible. Also called Haberdasher's problem and described in 1907 by Henry Dudeney it is the only 4 piece solution known.

In and Out Illusion

Similar objects available here- from Etsy: BUY NOW Ambiguous Objects

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In or Out Illusion: this 3D printed sculpture incorporates the now famous Stubborn Arrow Illusion and features both a left and right handed version. These ambiguous object illusions are a fairly recent invention by mathematician Kokichi Sugihara of Meiji University in Japan which take advantage of a clever combination of perspective, and viewing angle.

Shashibo Geometric Art

From Art of Play: BUY NOW: Shashibo Geometric Art

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Shashibo Geometric Art: dissect a cube into 12 equal irregular tetrahedra, connect these pieces symmetrically with hinges, and add 36 magnets to create a device with more that 70 geometrically interesting and aesthetic configurations. 


Beaded Kaleidocycle

Get similar beadwork geometric art here:

From Etsy: BUY NOW: Beadwork Kaleidocycle

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Beaded Kaleidocycle: based on a geometry of six linked tetrahedra with hinged connections that allow the ring to be rotated through its center. Intricate beadwork meets math in this kinetic artwork by Erin Peña. 

Square Kaleidocycle

This book has many versions of kaliedocycles: cut out and glue to make many interesting mathematical objects.

From Amazon: BUY NOW: MC Escher Kaleidocyles

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Square Kaleidocycle: a ring of eight linked tetrahedra. The hinged connections allow the ring to be rotated through its center. The faces of the pyramids are decorated with the famous tessellation work of MC Escher, a pattern of interlocking lizards. Note that as the kaleidocycle is rotated the lizards at the center change through each of four colors. Made from card stock, this kaleidocycle was cut and assembled from a book by mathematicians Doris Schattschneider and Wallace Walker. 

3D Pentominoes

The set I used for this video is called Pocket Katamino and is available here
From Amazon: BUY NOW Pentominoes 

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3D Pentominoes: the 12 possible arrangements of five identical squares, joined edge to edge, form the set of all pentominoes. Since 12x5=60, the pentominoes can tile a 6 x 10 rectangle with no gaps (2339 ways to do this- yet even finding one solution is a challenge). This set of colorful pentominoes is made so that the height of each piece is the same as the width of the constituent squares, such that 3D constructions can be made. Since 3x4x5=60 one can build a box with these dimensions (amazingly, 3940 ways to do this- but again, finding one is still a fun challenge). 


Superellipsoid

Vintage Super Eggs of Piet Hein can be found here: 
From Etsy: BUY NOW: Superellipsoid by Piet Hein

Get one in brass from this shop: 
From Etsy: BUY NOW: Brass Super Egg 

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Superellipsoid: the "super egg" is a mathematical creation of Danish scientist and artist Piet Hein (also the inventor of the Soma cube puzzle). The equation of the superellipse is that of a regular ellipse, but raising both sides to the power of 2.5 instead of 2- the resulting curve had a flattened end that allows the superellipsoid to stand upright. The superelljpse has found use in architecture and design. This super egg is made of stainless steel.

Ultimate Solid of Constant Width

Available in three metals and two finishes.
From The Matter Collection: 
Order NOW: Ultimate Solid of Constant Width- Brass
Order NOW: Ultimate Solid of Constant Width- Steel
Order NOW: Ultimate Solid of Constant Width- Copper

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Ultimate Solid of Constant Width: Reuleaux tetrahedrons with specially calculated curved edges become volumes of constant width- possibly the minimum volume that can possess this property. The shape featured here is a new discovery of a solid of constant width that has perfect tetrahedral symmetry. Made from solid steel, brass, and copper- these shapes have constant diameter no matter their orientation and will roll like spheres between two planes- note how the acrylic plate remains parallel to the desktop as the orbiforms roll in between. Currently available on Kickstarter from my friends at the Matter Collection : Reuleaux tetrahedrons with specially calculated curved edges become volumes of constant width- possibly the minimum volume that can possess this property. The shape featured here is a recent discovery of a solid of constant width that has perfect tetrahedral symmetry. Made from solid steel, brass, and copper- these shapes have constant diameter no matter their orientation and will roll like spheres between two planes- note how the acrylic plate remains parallel to the desktop as the orbiforms roll in between. Currently available from my friends at the Matter Collection 

Trammel of Archimedes

Get similar devices here: 

From Etsy: BUY NOW Trammel of Archimedes

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Trammel of Archimedes: as the shuttles take turns completing their straight line journeys, the end of the crank arm traces an ellipse. Sometimes sold as a “do nothing machine” or “nothing grinder”, far from doing nothing this simple and crucially important mechanism demonstrates how rotational motion can be converted into translational oscillatory motion- such as how a piston can drive an engine’s crankshaft. This version was crafted from fine maple, cherry, and oak by artisan Neal Olsen. 


Ambiguous Object Illusion Mug

From Etsy: BUY NOW Squirkle Mug Ambiguous Object Illusion 

These type of objects were invented by mathematician Kokichi Sugihara, and you can buy his books here: 
From Amazon: BUY NOW Ambiguous Objects by Kokichi Sugihara 
The math and physics are described here in this technical journal article by Prof. Sugihara

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Ambiguous Object Illusion Mug: circle or a square? It’s all a matter of perspective and viewing angle. The complex shape allows for both to be perceived and is based on the work of mathematician Kokichi Sugihara of Meiji University in Japan, the inventor of this illusion and art form. 

The Random Walker

Galton Board version available here: 
From Amazon: BUY NOW Galton Board 

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The Random Walker: second model of two Galton Boards designed and produced by IFA.com- this version is made to demonstrate probability in investment returns of a global stock market portfolio relating to risk capacity. Slow motion reveals the erratic path of each steel ball (second half of video). The red graph shows the distribution of 592 monthly returns (mean =1%, SD=5%) representing data from 50 years of an IFA Index fund- here the random “walk” of 3000 steel balls falling through 12 levels of branching paths always produce a close match, and both distributions tend toward the famous bell curve distribution. A wonderfully designed modern version of the Galton Box invented by Sir Francis Galton(1894) to demonstrate the Central Limit Theorem - showing how random processes gather around the mean.

Spherical Dice

A must for any die/dice collectors: 
From Amazon: BUY NOW Spherical Dice 

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Click this link for other amazing dice featured on @physicsfun 

Spherical Dice: these fair six "sided" dice are hollow inside with a ball that weights each sphere such that one of the six values is always on top. When these dice are rolled (literally!) the internal weight lands in one of six cavities inside creating a low center of mass which aligns one of the numbers to the top. Another low center of mass toy!